No, a Dobsonian is a standard Newtonian reflector on a special mount. It is no different in terms of optics than a standard Newtonian reflector. It is the mount that makes it a Dob, not the optics.
Any telescope can see those objects, but telescope size, in terms of mirror or lens diameter, is the main factor in telescope performance. A 6" scope, regardless of type, will see more objects and detail in those objects than a 114mm (4.5") scope. If you want to see more, you get a bigger scope. Don't make it any more complicated than that at this point.
Focal length is NOT something a beginner shoud use as a basis for buying a telescope. There is no better when it comes to focal length. A long focal length can be beneficial for some work, a short focal length for other work and, when it comes to beginner telescopes, manufacturers often artificially increse the focal length to add cheaper componenets, especially the mirror on a reflector. Scope size, otherfeatures and price is a better way to measure performance and quality.
A cold garage is better than a warm house. A scope needs to cool down to air temp before the optics are ready to use. Keeping the scope in a warm house just makes the process that much longer.
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